Saturday, October 9, 2010

FOOD PRODUCTION NOTES

Beetroot salad No. of Portions 4

Ingredients QTY Unit
Beetroot 200 Gm
Shallots 30 Gm
Vinaigrette 20 Ml
Dill leaves 10 Gm
Garlic 5 Gm


Pre-preparations:
1. Boil beetroot till tender. Peel and cut into dices.
2. Peel and finely chop shallots.
3. Peel crush and chop garlic.
4. Wash and chop dill leaves.


To assemble:
1. Mix beetroot, shallots, garlic and dill leaves. Pour vinaigrette and mix well.
2. Chill in refrigerator.


Standard:
Deep purple in colour, glossy / shiny appearance, neatly and evenly cut beetroot, well-seasoned and flavoured with dill and garlic. Served chilled.



Potato croquettes
No. of Portions 4

Ingredients QTY Unit
Potato 200 Gm
Egg 1 No.
Butter 5 Gm
Salt, pepper pwd. To taste
Nutmeg powder 1 Gm
Refined flour 50 Gm
Bread crumbs 100 Gm
Oil To fry



Pre-preparations:
1. - Prepare mashed potatoes - season, flavour with pepper and nutmeg powder. Add butter and little egg.
- Add salt and pepper powder to refined flour to make it ‘seasoned flour’. Beat the egg.
- Divide mashed potato into 4 equal portions. Roll out each one into cylindrical shape.

Method:
1. Dust croquettes with seasoned flour. Dip in egg wash and coat with bread crumbs. Adjust shapes.
2. Deep fry in hot oil to a golden brown colour. Remove on absorbent paper and serve immediately.

Standard:
Potatoes mashed, well-seasoned and flavoured with nutmeg; shaped like a barrel, coated evenly with bread crumbs and deep fried to a golden brown colour. Served hot.


Egg and vegetable stew
No. of Portions 4

Ingredients QTY Unit
Boiled eggs 4 No.
Butter 20 Gm
Olive oil 10 Ml
Onion 50 Gm
Garlic 5 Gm
Cauliflower 50 Gm
Carrot 50 Gm
Turnip 20 Gm
potato 50 Gm
Green peas 30 Gm
Tomato 100 Gm
Tomato puree 10 Gm
Refined flour 15 Gm
Salt, white pepper powder To taste
Bay leaf 2 No.
Peppercorns 4-5 No.
Worcestershire sauce A dash
Parsley A few sprigs

Pre-preparations:
1. Shell the eggs and slice lengthwise neatly into two.
2. Pre-prepare the vegetables and cut if necessary into even sized cubes.
3. Blanch and quarter the tomato.
4. Chop the garlic and parsley.
Method:
1. Heat the oil and butter with garlic.
2. Add onions and sauté lightly.
3. Now add other vegetables and sauté.
4. Sprinkle refined flour and cook till light brown roux.
5. Add sufficient water, bay leaves and peppercorns. Simmer till vegetables are ‘al dente’.
6. Stir in the tomatoes and adjust the colour with the tomato puree.
7. Check seasoning; add white pepper powder and a dash of Worcestershire sauce.
To serve:
Remove stew from the fire, discard bay leaves & peppercorns, transfer to the serving dish, arrange eggs neatly and sprinkle parsley.
Standard:
Neatly cut vegetables, cooked al dente, gravy must be fairly thick, light reddish brown in colour. Seasoned and served hot.
Note:
Other suitable vegetables could be substituted.



Omelets No. of Portions 1

Ingredients QTY Unit
Eggs 2 No.
Butter 5 Gm
Olive oil 5 Ml
Salt To taste
White pepper powder To taste


Steps
1. Beat eggs lightly. Add salt and pepper. Add butter and olive oil. Mix well.
2. Grease a non-stick pan lightly and heat it.
3. Pour the egg mixture over and mix with a wooden flat spoon.
4. Cook over a low flame till slightly set. Fold up into a crescent shape and serve immediately.



Note: Fillings –

a] Raw or cooked filling such as mushrooms, spinach, grated cheese etc. can be put in the middle and then the omelets rolled.
b] Filling such as chopped onions, tomato, green chilly, green coriander can be mixed with the beaten eggs for a masala omelet.
c] Filling can be sautéed in pan first, e.g. onions, mushrooms and then beaten eggs can be poured in the pan. (In this case 5 ml extra olive oil will be required.)





Green salad
No. of Portions 4

Ingredients QTY Unit
Iceberg lettuce 50 Gm
Cos lettuce 50 Gm
Frizae lettuce 50 Gm
Lollo rosso lettuce 50 Gm
Cherry tomato 25 Gm
Olive oil 5 Ml
Vinegar 5 Ml
Salt To taste
White pepper powder To taste


Pre-preparations:
1. Break lettuce leaves into medium sized pieces and keep in ice cold water.



Method:
1. Remove from water. Shake dry and pat dry with a clean, dry duster.
2. Arrange attractively on a serving dish.
3. Add cherry tomatoes to bring out colour contrast.
4. Drizzle dressing ingredients over and mix lightly.
5. Serve immediately.



To serve:



Standard:
Crisp pieces of lettuce, well-flavoured with the dressing. Served chilled.



Lyonnaise potatoes
No. of Portions 4

Ingredients QTY Unit
Potatoes 400 Gm
Onions 100 Gm
White stock To moisten
Butter 25 Gm
Salt, white pepper powder To taste








Pre-preparations:
1. Peel and cut potatoes into roundels. Boil in salted water till done. Drain. DO NOT REFRESH.
2. Peel and cut onions into roundels / rings.
3. Heat 5 gm butter. Sauté onions lightly. Keep aside.

Method:
1. Grease 4 ring moulds with a little butter. In each mould, arrange a layer of potatoes. Sprinkle salt and pepper powder, dot it with butter and layer with onions. Moisten with white stock. Repeat this process till all moulds are filled till the rim.

2. Place in a hot oven till surface browns.

3. Remove from oven, de-mould and serve immediately.




Kitchen Equipment
Having the proper tools and equipment for a particular task may mean the difference between a job well done and one done carelessly, incorrectly or even dangerously. This chapter introduces most of the tools and equipment typically used in a professional kitchen. Items are divided into categories according to their function: hand tools, knives, measuring and portioning devices, cookware, strainers and sieves, processing equipment, storage containers, heavy equipment, buffet equipment and safety equipment. A wide variety of specialized tools and equipment is available to today's chef. Breading machines, croissant shapers and doughnut glazers are designed to speed production by reducing handwork. Other devices for instance, a duck press or a couscousiere are used only for unique tasks in preparing a few menu items. Launch of this specialized equipment is quite expensive and found only in food manufacturing operations or specialized kitchens; a discussion of it is beyond the scope of this chapter. Brief descriptions of some of these specialized devices are, however, found in the Glossary. Baking pans and tools are discussed in Chapter 29, Principles of the Bakeshop. Before using any equipment, study the operator’s manual or have someone experienced with the particular item instruct you on proper procedures for its use and cleaning. And remember, always think safety first.
Selecting tools & Equipment
In general, only commercial food service tools and equipment should be used in a professional kitchen. Household tools and appliances that are not NSF- certified may not withstand the rigors of a professional kitchen. Look for tools that are well constructed. For example, joints should be welded, not bonded with solder, handles should be comfortable, with rounded borders; plastic and rubber parts should be seamless.

Before purchasing or leasing any equipment, you should evaluate several Factors:
1. Is this equipment necessary for producing menu items?
2. Will this equipment perform the job required in the space available?
3. Is this equipment the most economical for the operations specific needs?
4. Is this equipment easy to clean, maintain and repair?

Hand tools
Hand tools are designed to aid in cutting, shaping, moving or combining foods. They have few, if any, moving parts. Knives, discussed separately later, are the most important hand tools. Others are metal or rubber spatulas, spoons, whisks, tongs and specialized cutters. In addition to the items shown here, many hand tools designed for specific tasks, such as pressing tortillas or pitting cherries, are available. Sturdiness, durability and safety are the watchwords when selecting Hand Tools. Choose tools that can withstand the heavy use of a professional Kitchen and those that are easily cleaned.


Knives
Knives are the most important items in your tool kit. With a sharp knife, the skilled chef can accomplish a number of tasks more quickly and efficiently than any machine. Good quality knives are expensive but will last for many years with proper care. Select easily sharpened, well constructed knives that are comfortable and balanced in your hand. Knife construction and commonly used knives are discussed here; knife safety and care as well as cutting techniques are discussed in Chapter 6, Knife Skills. A good knife begins with a single piece of metal, stamped, cut or best of all forged and tempered into a blade of the desired shape.
The metals generally used for knife blades are;
1 Carbon steel—An alloy of carbon and iron, carbon steel is traditionally used for blades because it is soft enough to be sharpened easily. It corrodes and discolours easily, however, especially when used with acidic foods.
2 Stainless steel—Stainless steel will not rust, corrode or discolour and is extremely durable. A stainless steel blade is much more difficult to sharpen than a carbon steel one, although once an edge is established; it lasts longer than the edge on a carbon steel blade.
3 High-carbon stainless steel—an alloy combining the best features of carbon steel and stainless steel, high—carbon stainless steel neither corrodes nor discolours and can be sharpened almost as easily as carbon steel. It is now the most frequently used metal for blades.
4 Ceramic—A ceramic called zirconium oxide is now used to make knife blades that are extremely sharp, very easy to clean, rustproof and nonreactive. With proper care, ceramic blades will remain sharp for years, but when sharpening is needed, it must be done professionally on special diamond wheels. Material costs and tariffs make ceramic-bladed knives very expensive. Although this ceramic is highly durable, it does not have the flexibility of metal, so never use a ceramic knife to pry anything, to strike a hard surface (for example, when crushing garlic or chopping through bones) or to cut against a china or ceramic surface. A portion of the blade, known as the tang, fits inside the handle. The best knives are constructed with a full tang running the length of the handle; they also have a bolster where the blade meets the handle (the bolster is part of the blade, not a separate collar). Less expensive knives may have a 3/4th—length tang or a thin “rattail" tang. Neither provides as much support, durability or balance as a full tang.

Knife handles are often made of hard woods infused with plastic and riveted to the tang. Moulded poly- propylene handles are permanently bonded to a tang without seams or rivets. Stainless steel handles welded directly to the blade are durable but very lightweight. Any handle should • be shaped for comfort and ground smooth to eliminate crevices where bacteria can grow.
Knife shapes and sharpening Equipment you will collect many knives during your career, many with specialized functions not described here. This list includes only the most basic knives and sharpening equipment
FRENCH OR CHEF"S KNIFE An all purpose knife used for chopping, slicing and mincing Its rigid 8 to 14 inch long blade is wide at the heel and tapers to a point at the tip.
UTILITY KNIFE and all purpose knife used for cutting fruits and vegetables and carving poultry its rigid 6 to 8 inch-long blades is shaped like a chef’s Knife but narrower.
BONING KNIFE A smaller knife with a thin blade used to separate meat from Bone. The blade is usually 5 to 7 inches long and may be flexible or rigid.
PARING KNIFE a short knife used for detail work or cutting fruits and vegetables the rigid blade is from 2 to 4 inches long. A tour née or bird’s beak knife is similar to a paring knife but with a curved blade it is used to cut curved surfaces or tour née vegetables.
CLEAVER A Knife with a large, heavy rectangular blade used for Chopping or cutting through bones.
SLICER A knife with a long, thin blade used primarily for slicing cooked meat. The tip may be round or pointed, and the blade may be flexible or rigid. A similar knife with a serrated edge is used for slicing bread or pastry items.
BUTCHERS KNIFE sometimes known as a scimitar because the rigid blade curves up in a 25- degree angle at the tip, it is used for fabricating raw meat and is available with 6 to 14-inch blades.
OYSTER AND CLAM KNIVES The short, rigid blades of these knives are used to open oyster and clam shells. The tips are blunt; only the clam knife has a sharp edge

Sharpening Stone
Also known as a whetstone, a flat brick of synthetic abrasives that is used. To put an edge on a dull blade. Various grit Sizes are available. The most practical sets include both coarse and fine-grit stones.


Steel
A scored, slightly abrasive steel rod used to hone or straighten a blade immediately after and between sharpening.
Cookware
Cookware includes the sauté pans and stockpots used on the stove top as well as the roasting pans, hotel pans and specialty molds used inside the oven. Cookware should be selected for its size, shape, ability to conduct heat evenly and overall quality of construction.
Metals and Heat Conduction
Cookware that fails to distribute heat evenly may cause hot spots that burn foods. Because different metals conduct heat at different rates, and thicker layers of metal conduct heat more evenly than thinner ones, the most important considerations when choosing cookware are the type and thickness (known as the gauge) of the material used. No one cookware or material suits every process or need, however; always select the most appropriate material for the task at hand.
Copper
Copper is an excellent conductor: It heats rapidly and evenly and cools quickly. Indeed, unlined copper pots are unsurpassed for cooking sugar and fruit mixtures. But copper cookware is extremely expensive. lt also requires a great deal of care and is often quite heavy. Moreover, because copper may react with some foods, copper cookware usually has a tin lining, which is soft and easily scratched. Because of these problems, copper is now often sandwiched between layers of stainless steel or aluminium in the bottom of pots and pans.

Aluminium
Aluminium is the metal used most commonly in commercial utensils. It is light- weight and, after copper, conducts heat best. Aluminium is a soft metal, though. So it should be treated with care to avoid dents. Do not use aluminium containers for storage or for cooking acidic foods because the metal reacts chemically with many foods. Light-colored foods, such as soups or sauces, may be discolored when cooked in aluminium, especially if stirred with a metal whisk or spoon.

Anodized aluminium has a hard, dark, corrosion—resistant surface that helps preventing sticking and discoloration.

Stainless Steel
Although stainless steel conducts and retains heat poorly, it is a hard, durable metal particularly useful for holding foods and for low temperature cooking where as hot spots and scorching is not problems. Stainless steel pots and pans are available with aluminium or copper bonded to the bottom or with an aluminium layered core, Although expensive, such cookware combines the rapid, uniform heat conductivity of copper and aluminium with the strength, durability and non reactivity of stainless steel. Stainless steel is also ideal for storage containers because it does not react with foods.


Cast Iron
Cast iron cookware distributes heat evenly and holds high temperatures well. It is often used in griddles and large skillets. Although relatively inexpensive, cast iron is extremely heavy and brittle. It must be kept properly conditioned and dry to prevent rust and pitting.
Glass
Glass retains heat well but conducts it poorly. it does not react with foods. Tempered glass is suitable for microwave cooking provided it does not have any metal band or decoration. Commercial operations rarely use glass cookware because of the danger of breakage.
Ceramic
Ceramics, including earthenware, porcelain and stoneware, are used primarily for baking dishes, casseroles and baking stones because they conduct heat uniformly and retain temperatures well. Ceramics are nonreactive, inexpensive and generally suitable for use in a microwave oven (provided there is no metal in the gaze). Ceramics are easily chipped or cracked, however, and should not be used over a direct flame. Also, quick temperature changes may cause the cook- ware in crack or shatter.

Plastic
Plastic containers are frequently used in commercial kitchens for food storage or service but they cannot be used for heating or cooking except in a microwave oven. Plastic microwave cookware is made of phenol resin. It is easy to clean, relatively inexpensive and rigidly shaped, but its glasslike structure is brittle, and it can crack or shatter.
Enamelware
Pans Lined with enamel should not be used for cooking; in many areas, their use in commercial kitchens is prohibited by law. The enamel can chip or crack easily providing good places for bacteria to grow. Also, the chemicals used to bond the enamel to the cookware can cause food poisoning if ingested.
Non stick Coatings
Without affecting a metals ability to conduct heat, a polymer (plastic) known as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and marketed under the trade names Teflon and Silverstone may be applied to many types of cookware. It provides a slippery, nonreactive finish that prevents food from sticking and allows the use of less fat in cooking. Cookware with non-stick coatings requires a great deal of care, how- ever since the coatings can scratch, chip and blister. Do not use metal spoons or spatulas in cookware with non-stick coatings.

Common Cookware
Pots are large round vessels with straight sides and loop handles. Available in a range of sizes based on volume, they are used on the stove top making stocks or soups, or for boiling or simmering foods, particular] where rapid evaporation is not desired. Flat lids are available.
Pans
Pans are round vessels with one long handle and straight or sloped sides. They are usually smaller and shallower than pots. Pans are available in a range of diameters and are used for general stove top cooking, especially sautéing, frying or reducing liquids rapidly.

Woks
Originally used to prepare Asian foods, woks are nova found in many professional kitchens. Their round bottoms and curved sides diffuse heat and make it easy to toss or stir c0ntents. Their large dmed lids retain heat for steaming vegetables Woks are useful for quickly sautéing strips 0f meat, simmering a whole fish or deep frying appetizers. Stove top woks range in diameter fr0m l2 t0 30 inches larger built—in gas 0r electric m0dels are als0 available.
Hotel PANS
Pans (also known as steam table pans) are rectangular stainless steel designed to hold food for service in steam tables. Hotel pans are also used for baking, roasting or poaching inside an oven. Perforated pans use- and for draining, steaming or icing down foods are also available. The Standard pan is 12 by 20 inches, with pans one—half, one-third, one- and other fractions of this size available. Hotel pan depth is not standardized at 2 inches (referred to as a “2OO pan"), 4, 6 and 8 inches.
Moulds
The moulds are available in several shapes and sizes, and are usually made from tinned steel. Those with hinged sides, whether smooth or patterned, and more properly referred to as an crome molds. The hinged sides make it easier to remove the baked pate. Terrine molds are traditionally lid- earthenware or enameled cast—iron containers used for baking . They may be round, oval or rectangular. Timbale molds are metal or ceramic containers used for molding aspic individual portions of mousse, custard vegetables. Their slightly flared sides allow the contents to release cleanly when removed

Strainer & Sieves
Strainers and sieves are used primarily to aerate and remove impurities from dry ingredients and drain or puree cooked foods. Strainers, colanders, drum sieves, other caps and chinois are nonmechanical devices with a stainless steel mesh or screen through which food passes the size of the mesh or screen varies from extremely fine to several millimetres wide; select the fineness best suited for the task at hand.
Chinois and China cap
Both the chinois and china cap are cone-shaped metal strainers. The conical shape allows liquids to filter through small openings. The body of a chinois is made from a very fine mesh screen, while a china cap has a perforated metal body. Both are used for straining stocks and sauces. With the chinos being particularly useful for consommé. A china cap can also be used with a pestle to puree soft foods.
Skimmer & Spider
Both the skimmer and spider are long—handled tools used to remove foods or impurities from liquids. The flat, perforated disk of a skimmer is used for skimming stocks or removing foods from soups or stocks. The spider has a finer mesh disk, which makes it better for retrieving items from hot fat. Wooden—handled spiders are available but are less sturdy and harder to clean than all—metal designs.
Cheesecloth
Cheesecloth is loosely woven cotton gauze used for straining stocks and sauces and wrapping poultry or fish for poaching, Cheesecloth is also indispensable for making sachets. Always rinse cheesecloth thoroughly before use; this removes lint and prevents the cheesecloth from absorbing other liquids.
Food mill
A food mill purees and strains food at the same time. Food is placed in the hop- per and a hand—crank mechanism turns a blade in the hopper against a perforated disk, forcing the food through the disk. Most models have interchangeable disks with various—sized holes. Choose a mill that can be taken apart easily for cleaning.
Flour Sifter
A sifter is used for aerating, blending and removing impurities from dry ingredients such as flour, cocoa and leavening agents. The 8-cup hand—crank sifter shown here uses four curved rods to brush the contents through a curved mesh screen. The sifter should have a medium-fine screen and a comfortable handle.
Processing equipment
Processing equipment includes both electrical and nonelectrical mechanical devices used to chop, puree, slice, grind or mix foods. Before using any such equipment, be sure to review its operating procedures and ask for assistance if necessary. Always turn the equipment off and disconnect the power before disassemble cleaning or moving the appliance. Any problems or malfunctions should be reported immediately. Never place your hand into any machine when the power is on. Processing equipment is powerful & can cause serious injury
Slicer
Electric slicer is used to cut meat, bread, cheese or raw vegetables into uniform slices. It has a circular blade that rotates at high speed. Food is placed in a carrier, and then passed (manually or by an electric motor) against the blade. Slice thickness is determined by the distance between the blade and the carrier. Because of the speed with which the blade rotates, foods can ‘into extremely thin slices very quickly. An electric slicer is convenient for preparing moderate to large quantities of food, but the time required to disassemble and clean the equipment makes it impractical when slicing only a few

Mandolin
A mandolin is a manually operated slicer made of stainless steel with adjustable slicing blades. It is also used to make julienne and waffle- cut slices. Its narrow, rectangular body sits on the world counter at a 45—degree angle. Foods are passed against a blade to obtain uniform slices. It is useful for slicing small quantities of fruits or vegetables when using a large electric slicer would be unwarranted. To avoid injury, always use a hand guard or steel when using a mandolin.
Food CHOPPER OR BUFFALO CHOPPER
Chopper is used to process moderate to large quantities of uniform size, such as chopping onions or grinding bread for crumbs. The food is placed in a large bowl rotating beneath a hood where curved blades chop it. The size of the cut depends on how long the food is left in the machine. Buffalo choppers are available in floor or tabletop models. The motor can usually be fitted with a variety of other tools such as a meat grinder or a slicer/ shredder, making it even more useful.
FOOD PROCESSOR.
A food processor has a motor housing with a removable bowl and S shaped blade. It is used, for example, to puree cooked foods, chop nuts, prepare compound butters and emulsify sauces. Special disks can be added that slice, shred or julienne foods. Bowl capacity and motor power vary; select a processor model large enough for your most common tasks.
BLENDER
Though similar in principle to a food processor, a blender has a tall, narrow food container and a four-pronged blade. Its design and whirlpool action is better for processing liquids or liquid- Frying foods quickly. A blender is used to prepare smooth drinks, puree soups and sauces, blend batters and chop ice. A vertical cutter/mixer (VCM) operates like a very large, powerful blender. A VCM is usually floor—mounted and has a capacity of 15 to 80 quarts.
Immersion blender
An immersion blender as well as its household counterpart called a hand blender or wand-is a long shaft fitted with a rotating four pronged blade at the bottom. Operated by pressing a button in the handle, an immersion blender is used to puree a soft food, soup or sauce directly in the container in which it was prepared, eliminating the need to transfer the food from one container to another. This is especially useful when working with hot foods. Small cord- less, rechargeable models are convenient for pureeing or mixing small quantities or beverages, but larger heavy-duty electric models are more practical in commercial kitchens.
Mixer
A vertical mixer is indispensable in the bakeshop and most kitchens. The U- shaped arms hold a metal mixing bowl in place; the selected mixing attachment fits onto the rotating head. The three common mixing attachments are the whip (used for whipping eggs or cream), the paddle (used for general mixing) and the dough hook (used for kneading bread). Most mixers have several operating speeds. Bench models range in capacity from 4.5 to 20 quarts, while floor mixers can hold as Whip some mixers can be fitted with shredder slicers, meat grinders, juicers or power strainers, making the equipment more versatile.
Juicer
Two types of juicers arc available: reamers and extractors. Reamers, also known as citrus juices, remove juice from citrus fruits. Tricky can be manual or electric. Manual use a lever arm to squeeze the fruit with increased pressure. They are most often used to prepare small to

Heavy equipment
Heavy equipment includes the gas electric- or steam-operated appliances used for cooking. Reheating or holding foods. It also includes dishwashers and refrigeration units. These items are usually installed in a fixed location determined by the kitchen’s traffic flow and space limitations. Heavy equipment may be purchased or leased new or used. Used equipments are most often purchased in an effort to save money. Although the initial cost is generally less for used equipment. The buyer should also consider the lack of a manufacturer’s warranty or dealership guarantee and how the equipment was maintained by the prior owner. Functional used equipment is satisfactory for back-of—the—house areas. But it is usually better to purchase new equipment if it will be visible to the customer. Leasing equipment may be appreciated for some operations. The cost of leasing is less than purchasing and if something goes wrong with the equipment, the operator is generally not responsible for repairs or service charges.
STOVE TOPS
Stove tops or ranges are often the most important cooking equipment in the kitchen. They have one or more burners powered by gas or electricity. The burners may be open or covered with a cast-iron or steel plate. Open burners supply quick, direct heat that is easy to regulate. A steel plate, known as a flat top supplies even but less intense heat. Although it takes longer to heat than a burnet the flat top supports heavier weights and makes a larger area available for cooking. Many stoves include both flat tops and open burner arrangements.
Griddles
Griddles are similar A to flat tops except they are made of a thinner metal plate. Foods are usually cooked directly on the griddle’s surface, not in pots or pans, which can nick or scratch the surface. The surface should be properly cleaned and conditioned after each use. Griddles are popular for short order and fast food type operations.
OVENS
An oven is an enclosed space where food is cooked by being surrounded with hot, dry air. Conventional ovens are often located beneath the stove top. They have a heating element located at the unit’s bottom or floor, and pans are placed on adjustable wire racks inside the oven’s cavity. See Figure 5.5. Conventional ovens may also be separate, freestanding units or decks stacked one on top of the other in stack ovens, pans are placed directly on the deck or floor and not on wire racks. Convection ovens use internal fans to circulate the hot air; this tends to cook foods more quickly and evenly. Convection ovens are almost always freestanding units, powered either by gas or electricity. Because convection ovens cook foods more quickly, temperatures may need to be reduced by 25°F to 50F (1O°C to 20c) from those recommended for conventional ovens.
WOOD - BURNING OVENS
The ancient practice of baking in a retained—heat masonry oven has been revived in recent years, with many upscale restaurants and artesian bakeries in- stalling brick or adobe ovens for baking pizzas and breads as well as for roasting fish, poultry and vegetables. These ovens have a curved interior chamber that is usually recessed into a wall. Although grafted models are available, wood—firing is more traditional and provides the aromas and flavours associated with brick ovens. A wood fire is built inside the oven to heat the brick chamber. The ashes are then swept out and the food is placed on the flat oven floor. The combination of high heat and wood smoke adds distinctive flavours to foods.
MICROWAVE OVEN
Microwave ovens are electrically powered ovens used to cook or reheat foods. They are available in a range of sizes and power settings. Microwave ovens will not brown foods unless fitted with special browning elements. Microwave cooking is discussed in more detail in Chapter 10, Principles of Cooking.
BROILERS AND GRILLS
Broilers and grills are generally used to prepare meats, fish and poultry. For a grill the heat source is beneath the rack on which the food is placed. For a broiler, the heat source is above the food. Most broilers are gas powered; grills may be gas or electric or may burn wood or charcoal. A salamander is a small over- head broiler primarily used to finish or top- brown foods. See Figure 5.3. A rotisserie is similar to a broiler except that the food is placed on a revolving spit in front of the heat source. The unit may be open or en- closed like an oven; it is most often used for cooking poultry or meats.
Tilting skillets
Tilting skillets are large, freestanding. Flat—bottomed pans about 6 inches deep with an internal heating element below the pans bottom. They are usually made of stainless steel with a cover, and have a handle crank mechanism that turns or tilts the pan to pour out the contents. Tilting skillets can be used as stock pots, braziers, fry pans, griddles or steam tables, making them one of the most versatile of commercial appliances.
Steam kettles
Steam kettles (also known as steam—jacketed kettles) are similar to stockpots except they are heated from the bottom and sides by steam circulating between layers of stainless steel. The steam may be generated internally or from an out- side source. Because steam heats the kettles sides, foods cook more quickly and evenly than they would in a pot sitting on the stove top. Steam kettles are most often used for making sauces, soups, custards or stocks. Steam kettles are available in a range of sizes, from a 2—gallon tabletop model to a 100-gallon floor model. Some models have a tilting mechanism that allows the contents to be poured out; others have a spigot near the bottom through which liquids can be drained.
STEAMERS
Pressure and convection steamers are used to cook foods rapidly and evenly, using direct contact with steam. Pressure steamers heat water above the boiling point in sealed compartments; the high temperature and sealed compartment increase the internal pressure in a range of 4 to 15 pounds per square inch. The increased pressure and temperature cook the foods rapidly. Convection steamers generate steam in an internal boiler, and then release it over the foods in a cooking chamber. Both types of steamer are ideal for cooking vegetables with minimal loss of flavour or nutrients.
Deep-fat fryers
Deep-fat fryers are used to cook foods in a large amount of hot fat. Fryers are sized by the amount of fat they hold. Most commercial fryers range between 15 and 82 pounds. Fryers can be either gas or electric and are thermostatically con- trolled for temperatures between 200 F and 400°F (90°C and 200 C). When choosing a fryer, look for a fry tank with curved, easy—to—clean sloping sides. Some fryers have a cold zone (an area of reduced temperature) at the bottom of the fry tank to trap particles. This prevents them from burning, creating off—flavours and shortening the life of the fryer fat. Deep-fryers usually come with steel wire baskets to hold the food during cooking. Fryer baskets are usually lowered into the fat and raised manually, al- though some models have automatic basket mechanisms. The most important factor when choosing a deep-fryer is recovery time. Recovery time is the length of time it takes the fat to return to the desired cooking temperature after food is submerged in it. When food is submerged, heat is immediately transferred to the food from the fat. This heat transfer lowers the fat’s temperature. The more food added at one time, the greater the drop in the fats temperature. If the temperature drops too much or does not return quickly to the proper cooking temperature, the food may absorb excess fat and become greasy.
REFRIGERATORS
Proper refrigeration space is an essential component of any kitchen. Many foods must be stored at low temperatures to maintain quality and safety. Most commercial refrigeration is of two types; walk—in units and reach—in or upright units. A walk—in is a large, room-sized box capable of holding hundreds of pounds of food on adjustable shelves, A separate freezer walk—in may be positioned nearby or even inside a refrigerated Walk-in. Reach-ins may be individual units or parts of a bank of units, each with shelves approximately the size of a full sheet pan. Reach—in refrigerators and freezers are usually located throughout the kitchen to provide quick access to foods. Small units may also be placed beneath the work counters. Freezers and refrigerators are available in a wide range of sizes and door designs to suit any operation. Other forms of commercial refrigeration include chilled drawers located beneath a work area that are just large enough to accommodate a hotel pan, and display cases used to show foods to the customer.
DISH WASHERS
Mechanical dishwashers are available to wash rinse and sanitize dishware, glassware, cookware and utensils. Small models clean one rack of items at a time, while larger models can handle several racks simultaneously on a conveyor belt system. Sanitation is accomplished either with extremely hot water 82°C or with chemicals automatically dispensed during the final rinse cycle. Any dishwashing area should be carefully organized for efficient use of equipment and employees, and to prevent recontamination of clean items.


Safety devices
Safety devices, many of which are required by federal, state or local law, are critical to the wellbeing of a food service operation although they are not used in food preparation. Failing to include safety equipment in a kitchen or failing to maintain it properly endangers workers and customers.
Fire extinguishers
Fire extinguishers are canisters of foam, dry chemicals (such as sodium bi carbonate or potassium bicarbonate or pressurized water used to extinguish small fires. They must be placed within sight of and easily reached from the work areas in which fires are likely to occur. Different classes of extinguishers use different chemicals to fight different types of fires. The appropriate class must be used for the specific fire. See Table 5.2. Fire extinguishers must be recharged and checked from time to time. Be sure they have not been discharged, tampered with or otherwise damaged.
Ventilation systems
Ventilation systems (also called ventilation hoods) are commonly installed over cooking equipment to remove vapours, heat and smoke. Some systems include fire extinguishing agents or sprinklers. A properly operating hood makes the kitchen more comfortable for the staff and reduces the danger of fire. The system should be designed, installed and inspected by professionals, then cleaned and maintained regularly.
First—aid Kits
First—aid supplies should be stored in a clearly marked box, conspicuously located near food preparation areas. State and local laws may specify the kit’s ex- act contents. Generally, they should include a first-aid manual, bandages, gauze dressings, adhesive tape, antiseptics, scissors, cold packs and other supplies. The kit should be checked regularly and items replaced as needed. In addition, cards with emergency telephone numbers should be placed inside the fist—aid kit and near a telephone.

VERNON COELHO
IHM MUMBAI
2009-2010






Cream of vegetables soup
No. of Portions 4

Ingredients QTY Unit
Potatoes 150 Gm
Onions 50 Gm
Celery 50 Gm
Carrots 50 Gm
Tomatoes 300 Gm
Bay leaves 2 Gm
Peppercorns 5 Gm
Béchamel 200 Ml
Salt To taste
White pepper powder To taste
Parsley ¼ Bunch
Croutons To garnish
Fresh cream To garnish


Pre-prepations:
1. Clean and chop all vegetables roughly but evenly. Cook in sufficient water / stock till tender. Cool down to room temperature and puree.


Method:
1. Add puree to béchamel. Add salt and pepper. Strain twice.
2. Reheat just before serving. Serve piping hot garnished with parsley, a swirl of fresh cream and croutons.


Standard:
Smooth and creamy texture, well-seasoned, coating consistency soup. Served piping hot with appropriate garnish.




Potato salad
No. of Portions 4

Ingredients QTY Unit
Large potatoes 250 Gm
Mayonnaise 75 Ml
Shallots 20 Gm
Gherkins 20 Gm
Parsley 10 Gm
Salt To taste





Pre-preparations:
1. Peel and slice potatoes into roundels.
2. Peel and chop shallots.
3. Dice the gherkins.
4. Wash and chop parsley roughly.
5.

Method:
1. Boil the potatoes with salt till tender. Drain and keep aside to cool. Then refrigerate.
2. Smear the potatoes with mayonnaise and arrange into a plate.
3. Sprinkle the parsley, gherkins and shallots.

To serve:
Chill the plate of salad after arranging. Serve cold.

Standard:
Roundels of potato, ¼” thick, just cooked without breaking. Mayonnaise must be seasoned and flavoured well and topping / garnish should be evenly cut.





Scotch eggs No. of Portions 4

Ingredients QTY Unit
Hard boiled egg 4 No.
Raw egg 1 No.
Mutton mince 500 Gm
Ginger garlic paste 10 Gm
Onion 50 Gm
Bread slices 4 No.
Worcestershire sauce 15 Ml
Oil 15 Ml
Refined flour 15 Gm
Salt To taste
White pepper powder To taste
Dry bread crumbs To coat
Oil / fat To fry
Parsley ¼ bunch

Pre-preparations:
1. Shell the hard boiled eggs. Dust with flour.
2. Soak bread and then squeeze dry.
3. Chop onions finely.


Method:
1. Heat oil. Sauté onions. Add ginger-garlic paste. Add mutton mince and cook till tender.
2. Remove from flame, cool down and pulverize lightly. Mix a little raw egg and bread for binding. Add salt and pepper.
3. Coat the hard boiled eggs with minced meat mixture. Dust with flour. Dip in egg wash and coat with dry bread crumbs.
4. Deep fry in hot oil till light brown.


To serve:
Cut each Scotch egg into half, serve garnished with parsley.

NOTE:
Scotch eggs may be served hot with tomato sauce or cold – set on lettuce leaves.




Cabbage Chowder No. of Portions 4

Ingredients QTY Unit
Cabbage 200 Gm
Onion 50 Gm
Tomato 150 Gm

Carrot 150 Gm

Green Capsicum 50 Gm
Butter 30 Gm
Refined Flour 25 Gm
Milk 250 Ml
Cheese 50 Gm
Paprika A Pinch
Salt To taste
White Pepper Powder To Taste



Pre-preparation :-
1. Trim and peel all the vegetables as required- cut cabbage, carrots, capsicum, and onions into dices.
2. Grate Cheese.
Steps :-
1. Prepare a white sauce with flour, butter and milk. Flavour it with a pinch of paprika and pepper powder.
2. Simmer the vegetables in little water till tender.
3. Stir in the white sauce and cheese.
4. Adjust the consistency with a little milk or water. Check seasoning and serve hot.

Note:-
Capsicum may be added towards the end of the cooking time.
For Corn and Cabbage chowder add in 50 gm of american corn along with other
vegetables.









Cream of Tomato Soup No. of Portions 4

Ingredients QTY Unit
Tomato 350 Gm
Carrot 100 Gm
Turnip 25 Gm
Onion 30 Gm
Celery 1 Sprig
Bayleaf 1 No.
Peppercorn 5-6 No.
Butter 25 Gm
Refined Flour 25 Gm
Milk 250 Ml
Salt, White Pepper Powder To Taste
Parsley 1 Sprig
Fresh Cream For Garnish
Bread Cubes Fried For Garnish



Pre- preparation:-
1. 1) Chop onion, tomato and carrot into dices. Trim and chop parsley.

Steps :-
1) In a pan add 250 ml of water, bay leaf, peppercorns and the vegetables. Cook till vegetables are tender and soft.
2) Cool down the mixture. Puree in food processor.
3) Prepare a white sauce with butter, refined flour and milk.
4) Add puree to white sauce. Strain through a soup strainer. Adjust the consistency and the seasoning.
5) Serve piping hot with croutons, parsley and a swirl of cream.



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